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Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Mageau G. The coach—athlete relationship: a motivational model. Journal of Sports Sciences , 21 11 , — Canadian Journal of Public Health , 89 3 , — The structure of mental health: Higher-order confirmatory factor analyses of psychological distress and well-being measures. Social Indicators Research , 45 , — Mirowski, J. Social Causes of Psychological Distress. Click here.
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Don't have access? View purchasing options. Find in this title Show Hide Page Numbers. On This Page. Copy to Clipboard. Looks like you do not have access to this content. Click here for free trial login. Loading content A Small. A Normal. In a meta-analysis, Ng, Eby et al identified four categories of predictors of objective and subjective career success: human capital, organizational sponsorship, sociodemographic status and stable individual differences.
In this latest variable, Ng includes the big five personality factors Norman, ; Christal, These traits include conscientiousness, emotional stability, extroversion, openness to experience and agreeableness. Seibert et al identified which of the five personality factors related negatively or positively to career success. In short, the results show that extraversion and conscientiousness are positively related to career satisfaction, whilst neuroticism and surprisingly, agreeableness and openness, are negatively related to career satisfaction, particularly regarding salary levels.
Lounsbury et al investigated the impact of intelligence and personality in relation to career satisfaction, the results of which suggest that a significant relationship between intelligence and career satisfaction may be observed. Bozionelos talks about extrinsic objective and intrinsic subjective career success, the later being almost exclusively associated with personality traits. Within the increasingly popular Positive Organizational Behaviour research, the notion of Positive Psychological Capital has been used by Luthans et al to measure the relationship between Psycap, performance and satisfaction.
Luthan developed a micro-intervention based on this concept, aiming at changing self -defeating behaviour via a one to three hours intervention.
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Even though this concept is very interesting, this kind of "quick-fix" approach seems a little dubious but could certainly be used as a "first step" sensitizing exercise. Emotional Intelligence E. EI's positiveness includes enhanced self-esteem, well-being, flow, optimism and community values Fineman, In a recent study, Lent et al link work satisfaction with subjective well-being in the context of work.
Here again, the central pathways of work satisfaction include personality and affective traits. Kidd's most recent research identified seven features of career well-being, as well as fifteen positive and twenty-four negative emotions. Kidd's work on the absence of emotion in career theory, allowed this very important aspect to be addressed and included in career studies. Moreover, some negative aspects negative emotions in her recent paper are included. Vardi exposes that researchers still expound on the positive aspects of careers, at the expense of their potential downsides and threats.
Without exploring the darker side of careers, a well-rounded, balanced and comprehensive understanding of careers cannot be successfully attained. Indeed, not addressing this would make it difficult for individuals to identify what negative aspects could be changed, in order to experience more professional success and satisfaction. This non exhaustive list of research aims to define precise variables related to career success, satisfaction and well-being, in order to draw measurable conclusions.
Although the results present valuable information, the amount of different matrices may be somewhat confusing and limiting. Arthur mentions that more research needs to be led, for rapprochement between career theory and career success research. Since , researchers such as Cochran, have been highlighting the fact that scholars and practitioners have been attracted to theories offering a deeper view of career, but have been frustrated by difficulties in translating theories into viable practice.
Since then, attempts have been made to link traditional tools with narrative approaches. McGregir, McAdams and Little examined the relations between life-stories, personality traits and personal goals, and their overall impact on happiness in life as a whole. Results indicated that people who reported the highest levels of happiness were those who maintained personal goals consistent with their personality traits and thematically linked with their life story.
This concept of happiness "at large" could logically include career success and satisfaction. A crucial aspect of career well-being identified by Kidd is having autonomy and power. The "Protean" career as exposed by Hall focuses on achieving subjective career success through self-directed vocational behaviour, while the "Boundaryless" mindset focuses on organizational mobility preference Briscoe et al, Self-directed behaviour suggests more control over one's career, resulting in apt choices and a potential increase in career satisfaction.
Mobility suggests frequent changes which may also result in satisfaction and success. Kidd's research shows that an important feature of career well-being is career mobility. To follow such paths, individuals must develop a portable career capital. They must also learn how to adapt to change, with confidence and self-efficacy Bandura, In addition to abilities, interests and personality traits, self-concept and self-confidence represent another major source of relatively stable individual difference characteristics related to work competence and career success.
Results strongly supported the predictions that dysfunctional thoughts affected subjective well-being and job satisfaction and highlight the beneficial effects of EAP employee assistance programme in order to achieve a dramatic and long lasting increase in overall effect after several weeks of regular cognitive therapy sessions.
Boundaryless career and career success: the impact of emotional and social competencies
Although the benefits of workplace counselling are well documented Athanasiades et al , this service seems mainly oriented towards the management of stress, mental health difficulties and sometimes serious psychological issues Arthur, Career counselling, on the other hand, focuses on careers guidance without overstepping the boundaries by engaging in therapy. Arnaud presents an interesting alternative in his study entitled "A coach or a couch?
A Lacanian perspective on executive coaching and consulting". Even though psychoanalysis applied to coaching is not new, Rotenberg explains how this approach is legitimate, since psychoanalytic psychotherapy has always been concerned with effective behavioural change and with the adaptational process.
Psychoanalysts as coaches focus on the competency of individuals in complex organizational cultures, as well as the individual's own experience of effectiveness or lack of it. Further research would be worth conducting, on the effect of therapeutic counselling and psychotherapy on career satisfaction, success and well-being.
For example, psychotherapy is an important way of working on low self-esteem issues, which could potentially undermine career success and satisfaction. Borrowing from training and development research, Cannell CIPD, defines learning as a self-directed work-based process leading to increased adaptive capacity, in other words, an environment where individuals learn to learn.
Career development is a planned process of different learning experiences that may last for some months or years. This definition highlights the importance of self-responsibility in an on-going learning endeavor. Career transitions not only require the learning of new skills and competencies, but also the development of new or the altering of old relationships Ibarra, In "A mentor is a key to career success", Doody emphasizes the importance, for individuals, of finding a mentor.
Boundaryless Careers and Occupational Wellbeing | M. Cortini | Palgrave Macmillan
Mentoring has been associated with subjective outcomes such as career satisfaction e. Fagenson, and objective outcome such as career progress e. Walsh and Borkowski, , in terms of promotion for example. Chandler and Kran explain that post-corporate formats of new types of careers, marked by more transitions across, as well as within organizations Arthur and Rousseau, , has profound implications for individuals, who must build relationships to learn, develop and grow.
Kram's suggestion that individuals typically have more than one mentor and that not all of the individual's mentors are to be found within the context of his or her job is interesting, as it considers all aspects of an individual's life, beyond the work environment, which is the tendency within a post-modern paradigm. According to Kram , , mentoring functions can include sponsorship, coaching and protection.
Mentoring can also provide exposure, visibility and challenging assignments. Finally, it includes important psychological functions, which comprise role modeling, acceptance and confirmation, counselling and friendship. Network directly shapes career outcomes by regulating access to jobs, providing mentoring and sponsorship, channeling the flow of information and referrals, augmenting power and reputation and increasing the chances of promotion e. Burt Interestingly, the same authors argue that an identity perspective on the relationship between networks and careers is especially relevant in a world in which career changes are increasingly self-initiated rather than imposed by the organization.
In a review paper, Ashforth explores how multiple identifications may conflict, converge and combine. Recent work suggests that different identities are advantageous at different stages in the career Zuchermann et al, Cochran emphasizes the importance of having a life purpose. The constructivist approach concentrates on subjective truths in meaning making and mattering Savickas, Wrzesniewski et al found that having a calling was associated with the highest life and work satisfaction. Career counsellors seem to agree on viewing career as a holistic concept in which work and personal life are inextricably intertwined, and that individuals are experts in their own lives, actively constructing their careers McMahon and Patton, The current crisis is seen by some Whitmore, as the symptom of a long-term global social trend: the shift from hierarchy to self-responsibility, which is a highly significant stage in human evolution.
Interpretation of recent research conclusions highlights several elements that need to be grasped by individuals, in order to maximize their chances of career success and career satisfaction over the life course. First of all, individuals need to understand that their career is evolving within a postmodern era characterized by subjectivity, discourse and fluidity. It is important for individuals to identify the new boundaryless, protean and kaleidoscopic career patterns in order to create a narrative and find their own unique or multiple identities accordingly.
Although it could be argued that fate and destiny, according to fixed or external factors such as family background or economic downturn for example, could limit people's choices, remarkable transformations can still be achieved by acts of will Nicholson, Characteristics starting with "self" self-efficacy, self-confidence, self-responsibility, self-concept, self-motivation, self-knowledge, self-esteem, self-reinvention, self-awareness etc are in recrudescence within research literature. This emphasizes the notion of individual responsibility, active choice and apt decision making.
Indeed, power over people's career is no longer within the organization but within each person. Consolidating competencies, increasing knowledge and acquiring new skills, depending on how individuals' careers evolve and develop, is of primary importance. A "career for life" within the same organization becoming increasingly unlikely, versatility, adaptability and mobility become a necessity. To achieve this goal, it is crucial for individuals to develop a flexible portfolio of competencies and to create solid networks. Finally, research shows that individuals need to take a more holistic perspective and find congruence between career choices and life purpose, which they need to identify.
A more diffuse boundary between work and life in general goes in line with a constructivist approach. In a challenging economic conjuncture, this complex and unpredictable work environment, full of potential for success and satisfaction, could however result in confusion and be a source of anxiety, insecurity or even failure. The intrinsic message behind research confirms the necessity, for individuals, to be able to reach out and find the right guidance, whether it be a career counsellor, a mentor, a coach or even a psychotherapist.
Arnaud, G. A coach or a couch? A Lacanian perspective on executive coaching and consulting. Human Relations. Arthur, M. Generating new directions in career theory: the case for a transdisciplinary approach. Arthur, D.. Lawrence Eds.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The boundaryless career: A new employment principle for a new organizational era. New York: Oxford University Press. In Chandler, D. Mentoring and developmental networks in the new career contexts, in Handbook of Career Studies. Sage Publications Ltd. Arthur, A. Employee assistance programmes: the emperor's new clothes of stress management?. Journal of organizational behavior. Ashforth, B. Journal of Management, Vol. Athanasiades, C. Grough, B. Factors affecting self-referral to counselling services in the workplace: a qualitative study.
Boundaryless Careers and Occupational Well-being
Biscoe, J. Bourdreau J. Journal of Vocational Behavior 58, Bozionelos, N , The relationship between disposition and career success: A British study. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology , 77, Burt, R. Structural holes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard university press. In Ibarra, H. Networks and Identities.